|Career||Industry||Education||Years of Education||Training/Certification||Description|
|Computer and Information Systems Manager||IT||University degree or college diploma||4||Description
Review project plans to plan and coordinate project activity.
Manage backup, security and user help systems.
Develop and interpret organizational goals, policies and procedures.
Develop computer information resources, providing for data security and control, strategic computing and disaster recovery.
Consult with users, management, vendors and technicians to assess computing needs and system requirements.
Stay abreast of advances in technology.
Meet with department heads, managers, supervisors, vendors and others to solicit cooperation and resolve problems.
|Network and Computer Systems Administrator||IT||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Maintain and administer computer networks and related computing environments.
Perform data backups and disaster recovery operations.
Diagnose, troubleshoot and resolve hardware, software or other network and system problems, and replace defective components when necessary.
Plan, coordinate and implement network security measures to protect data, software and hardware.
Configure, monitor and maintain email applications or virus protection software.
Operate master consoles to monitor the performance of computer systems and networks, and to coordinate computer network access and use.
|Event Planner||Fashion||Bachelor's associate's degree||4||Description
Monitor event activities to ensure compliance with applicable regulations and laws, satisfaction of participants and resolution of any problems that arise.
Confer with staff at a chosen event site to coordinate details.
Inspect event facilities to ensure that they conform to customer requirements.
Coordinate services for events, such as accommodation and transportation for participants, facilities, catering, signage, displays, special needs requirements, printing and event security.
Consult with customers to determine objectives and requirements for events such as meetings, conferences and conventions.
|Wholesale and Retail Buyer||Fashion||University degree or college diploma||4||Description
Use computers to organize and locate inventory, and operate spreadsheet and word processing software.
Negotiate prices, discount terms and transportation arrangements for merchandise.
Manage the department for which they buy.
Confer with sales and purchasing personnel to obtain information about customer needs and preferences.
Examine, select, order and purchase at the most favourable price merchandise consistent with quality, quantity, specification requirements and other factors.
Monitor and analyze sales records, trends or economic conditions to anticipate consumer buying patterns and determine what the company will sell and how much inventory is needed.
|Fashion Designer||Fashion||Bachelor's or associate's degree or college diploma||3 to 4||Description
Direct and coordinate workers involved in drawing and cutting patterns and constructing samples or finished garments.
Examine sample garments on and off models, then modify designs to achieve desired effects.
Sketch rough and detailed drawings of apparel or accessories, and write specifications.
Confer with sales and management executives or with clients in order to discuss design ideas.
Identify target markets for designs, looking at factors such as age, gender and socioeconomic status.
Attend fashion shows and review garment magazines and manuals in order to gather information about fashion trends and consumer preferences.
Select materials and production techniques to be used for products.
|Fashion Retail Sales||Fashion||High school or college diploma||2 to 4||Description
Greet customers and ascertain what each customer wants or needs.
Describe merchandise and explain use, operation and care of merchandise to customers.
Recommend, select and help locate or obtain merchandise based on customer needs and desires.
Compute sales prices, total purchases and process cash or credit payment.
Answer questions regarding the store and its merchandise.
Prepare sales slips or sales contracts.
|Correction Officer||Legal Professional||High school or college diploma||2 to 4||Description
Conduct head counts to ensure that each prisoner is present.
Monitor conduct of prisoners in housing unit, or during work or recreational activities.
Record information, such as prisoner identification, charges and incidences of inmate disturbance, and keep daily logs of prisoner activities.
Search prisoners and vehicles and conduct shakedowns of cells for valuables and contraband, such as weapons or drugs.
Use weapons, handcuffs and physical force to maintain discipline and order among prisoners.
Inspect mail for the presence of contraband.
Guard facility entrances to screen visitors.
Maintain records of prisoners' identification and charges.
Process or book convicted individuals into prison.
|Court Reporter||Legal Professional||College diploma||3 to 4||Description
Record verbatim proceedings of courts, legislative assemblies, committee meetings and other proceedings, using computerized recording equipment, electronic stenograph machines or stenomasks.
Take notes in shorthand or use a stenotype or shorthand machine that prints letters on a paper tape.
Record symbols on computer storage media and use computer-aided transcription to translate and display them as text.
Provide transcripts of proceedings upon request of judges, lawyers or the public.
Transcribe recorded proceedings in accordance with established formats.
File a legible transcript of records of a court case with the court clerk's office.
Ask speakers to clarify inaudible statements.
File and store shorthand notes of court session.
Record depositions and other proceedings for attorneys.
|Judge||Legal Professional||Doctor or professional degree||10||Description
Read documents on pleadings and motions to ascertain facts and issues.
Rule on admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony.
Instruct juries on applicable laws, direct juries to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdicts.
Award compensation for damages to litigants in civil cases in relation to findings by juries or by the court.
Monitor proceedings to ensure that all applicable rules and procedures are followed.
Preside over hearings and listen to allegations made by plaintiffs to determine whether the evidence supports the charges.
Research legal issues and write opinions on the issues.
|Lawyer||Legal Professional||Doctor or professional degree||8 to 10||Membership in related associations||Description
Represent clients in court or before government agencies.
Present evidence to defend clients or prosecute defendants in criminal or civil litigation.
Select jurors, argue motions, meet with judges and question witnesses during the course of a trial.
Study the Constitution, statutes, decisions, regulations, and ordinances of quasi-judicial bodies to determine ramifications for cases.
Interpret laws, rulings and regulations for individuals and businesses.
Present and summarize cases to judges and juries.
|Police Patrol Officer||Legal Professional||High school diploma or equivalent||2 to 4||Description
Provide for public safety by maintaining order, responding to emergencies, protecting people and property, enforcing motor vehicle and criminal laws, and promoting good community relations.
Record facts to prepare reports that document incidents and activities.
Monitor, note, report and investigate suspicious persons and situations, safety hazards and unusual or illegal activity in patrol area.
Identify, pursue and arrest suspects and perpetrators of criminal acts.
Patrol specific area on foot, horseback or motorized conveyance, responding promptly to calls for assistance.
Review facts of incidents to determine if criminal act or statute violations were involved.
|Probation Officer||Legal Professional||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Interview probationers and parolees regularly to evaluate their progress in accomplishing goals and maintaining the terms specified in their probation contracts and rehabilitation plans.
Recommend remedial action or initiate court action in response to noncompliance with terms of probation or parole.
Administer drug and alcohol tests, including random drug screens of offenders, to verify compliance with substance abuse treatment programs.
Prepare and maintain case folder for each assigned inmate or offender.
Discuss with offenders how issues such as drug and alcohol abuse and anger management problems might have played roles in their criminal behavior.
|Judicial Law Clerk||Legal Professional||Bachelor's or master's degree||4 to 6||Description
Attend court sessions to hear oral arguments or record necessary case information.
Communicate with counsel regarding case management or procedural requirements.
Confer with judges concerning legal questions, construction of documents or granting of orders.
Draft or proofread judicial opinions, decisions or citations.
Keep abreast of changes in the law and inform judges when cases are affected by such changes.
Participate in conferences or discussions between trial attorneys and judges.
|Mental Health Counsellor||Medical and Health||Master's degree||6||Description
Maintain confidentiality of records relating to clients' treatment.
Assess patients for risk of suicide attempts.
Encourage clients to express their feelings.
Collect information about clients through interviews, observation or tests.
Counsel clients or patients, individually or in group sessions, to assist in overcoming dependencies, adjusting to life or making changes.
Guide clients in the development of skills or strategies for dealing with their problems.
Develop and implement treatment plans based on clinical experience and knowledge.
|Dentist||Medical and Health||Doctor or professional degree||10||Licensure by provincial or territorial authorities||Description
Administer anesthetics to limit the amount of pain experienced by patients during procedures.
Use masks, gloves and safety glasses to protect themselves and their patients from infectious diseases.
Examine teeth, gums and related tissues, using dental instruments, x-rays or other diagnostic equipment, to evaluate dental health, diagnose diseases or abnormalities and plan appropriate treatments.
Formulate plan of treatment for patient's teeth and mouth tissue.
Use air turbine and hand instruments, dental appliances and surgical implements.
Diagnose and treat diseases, injuries or malformations of teeth, gums or related oral structures and provide preventive or corrective services.
|Internist, general||Medical and Health||Doctor or professional degree||10||Description
Treat internal disorders, such as hypertension, heart disease, diabetes and problems of the lung, brain, kidney and gastrointestinal tract.
Prescribe or administer medication, therapy and other specialized medical care to treat or prevent illness, disease or injury.
Explain procedures and discuss test results or prescribed treatments with patients.
Analyze records, reports, test results or examination information to diagnose medical condition of patient.
Collect, record and maintain patient information, such as medical history, reports and examination results.
Make diagnoses when different illnesses occur together or in situations where the diagnosis may be obscure.
Monitor patients' conditions and progress and reevaluate treatments as necessary.
Advise patients and community members concerning diet, activity, hygiene and disease prevention.
|Surgeons||Medical and Health||Doctor or professional degree||10||Description
Follow established surgical techniques during the operation.
Examine patient to obtain information on medical condition and surgical risk.
Operate on patients to correct deformities, repair injuries, prevent and treat diseases, or improve or restore patients' functions.
Analyze patient's medical history, medication allergies, physical condition and examination results to verify operation's necessity and to determine best procedure.
Prescribe preoperative and postoperative treatments and procedures, such as sedatives, diets, antibiotics and preparation and treatment of the patient's operative area.
Diagnose bodily disorders and orthopedic conditions and provide treatments, such as medicines and surgeries, in clinics, hospital wards and operating rooms.
|Nurse Practitioners||Medical and Health||Bachelor's or master's degree||6||Description
Prescribe medication dosages, routes and frequencies based on patients' characteristics such as age and gender.
Order, perform or interpret the results of diagnostic tests such as complete blood counts (CBCs), electrocardiograms (EKGs) and radiographs (x-rays).
Analyze and interpret patients' histories, symptoms, physical findings or diagnostic information to develop appropriate diagnoses.
Develop treatment plans based on scientific rationale, standards of care, and professional practice guidelines.
Diagnose or treat acute health care problems such as illnesses, infections and injuries.
Prescribe medications based on efficacy, safety and cost as legally authorized.
Counsel patients about drug regimens and possible side effects or interactions with other substances such as food supplements, over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal remedies.
|Massage Therapist||Medical and Health||Completion of college, cegep, vocational or technical training||2 to 4||Certification by a provincial or territorial association for massage therapists||Description
Assess clients' soft tissue condition, joint quality and function, muscle strength and range of motion.
Refer clients to other types of therapists when necessary.
Treat clients in professional settings or travel to clients' offices and homes.
Use complementary aids, such as infrared lamps, wet compresses, ice and whirlpool baths to promote clients' recovery, relaxation and well-being.
Develop and propose client treatment plans that specify which types of massage are to be used.
Confer with clients about their medical histories and problems with stress or pain to determine how massage will be most helpful.
|Medical Office Assistant||Medical and Health||High school diploma or equivalent||4||Description
Record patients' medical history, vital statistics or information such as test results in medical records.
Prepare treatment rooms for patient examinations, keeping the rooms neat and clean.
Interview patients to obtain medical information and measure their vital signs, weight and height.
Authorize drug refills and provide prescription information to pharmacies.
Clean and sterilize instruments and dispose of contaminated supplies.
Prepare and administer medications as directed by a physician.
Show patients to examination rooms and prepare them for the physician.
|Paramedic||Medical and Health||College diploma||3||Description
Administer first aid treatment or life support care to sick or injured persons in prehospital settings.
Perform emergency diagnostic and treatment procedures, such as stomach suction, airway management or heart monitoring, during ambulance ride.
Observe, record and report to physician the patient's condition or injury, the treatment provided, and reactions to drugs or treatment.
Immobilize patient for placement on stretcher and ambulance transport, using backboard or other spinal immobilization device.
Maintain vehicles and medical and communication equipment and replenish first aid equipment and supplies.
Assess nature and extent of illness or injury to establish and prioritize medical procedures.
|Personal Care Aides||Medical and Health||High school diploma or equivalent||3||Description
Administer bedside or personal care, such as ambulation or personal hygiene assistance.
Prepare and maintain records of client progress and services performed, reporting changes in client condition to manager or supervisor.
Perform housekeeping duties, such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes or dishes, or running errands.
Care for individuals or families during periods of incapacitation, family disruption or convalescence, providing companionship, personal care or help in adjusting to new lifestyles.
Perform healthcare-related tasks, such as monitoring vital signs and medication, under the direction of registered nurses or physiotherapists.
|Pharmacist||Medical and Health||Doctor or professional degree||10||Pharmacy Examining Boards of Canada Certification; Licensure by provincial or territorial authorities||Description
Review prescriptions to assure accuracy, to ascertain the needed ingredients, and to evaluate their suitability.
Provide information and advice regarding drug interactions, side effects, dosage and proper medication storage.
Assess the identity, strength or purity of medications.
Maintain records, such as pharmacy files, patient profiles, charge system files, inventories, control records for radioactive nuclei or registries of poisons, narcotics or controlled drugs.
Compound and dispense medications as prescribed by doctors and dentists, by calculating, weighing, measuring and mixing ingredients, or oversee these activities.
|Clinical Psychologist||Medical and Health||Doctor or professional degree||4 to 10||Provincial or territorial Psychologist's Certificate of Registration; Membership in a provincial or territorial psychological association; Membership in the Canadian Psychological Association||Description
Interact with clients to assist them in gaining insight, defining goals and planning action to achieve effective personal, social, educational and vocational development and adjustment.
Identify psychological, emotional or behavioral issues and diagnose disorders using information obtained from interviews, tests, records and reference materials.
Use a variety of treatment methods, such as psychotherapy, hypnosis, behavior modification, stress reduction therapy, psychodrama and play therapy.
Counsel individuals and groups regarding problems, such as stress, substance abuse and family situations, to modify behavior or to improve personal, social and vocational adjustment.
Discuss the treatment of problems with clients.
|Child and Family Social Worker||Medical and Health||University degree or college diploma||4||Description
Counsel individuals, groups, families or communities regarding issues including mental health, poverty, unemployment, substance abuse, physical abuse, rehabilitation, social adjustment, child care or medical care.
Interview clients individually, in families, or in groups, assessing their situations, capabilities and problems, to determine what services are required to meet their needs.
Serve as liaisons between students, homes, schools, family services, child guidance clinics, courts, protective services, doctors and other contacts, to help children who face problems such as disabilities, abuse or poverty.
Maintain case history records and prepare reports.
|Automotive Master Mechanic||Trades||College diploma or apprenticeship||2 to 4||Description
Test drive vehicles, and test components and systems, using equipment such as infrared engine analyzers, compression gauges and computerized diagnostic devices.
Examine vehicles to determine extent of damage or malfunctions.
Repair, reline, replace and adjust brakes.
Follow checklists to ensure all important parts are examined, including belts, hoses, steering systems, spark plugs, brake and fuel systems, wheel bearings and other potentially troublesome areas.
Confer with customers to obtain descriptions of vehicle problems, and to discuss work to be performed and future repair requirements.
|Electrician||Trades||College diploma or apprenticeship||2 to 4||Electrician's license or identification||Description
Maintain current electrician's license or identification card to meet governmental regulations.
Connect wires to circuit breakers, transformers or other components.
Repair or replace wiring, equipment or fixtures, using hand tools or power tools.
Assemble, install, test or maintain electrical or electronic wiring, equipment, appliances, apparatus or fixtures, using hand tools or power tools.
Test electrical systems or continuity of circuits in electrical wiring, equipment or fixtures, using testing devices, such as ohmmeters, voltmeters or oscilloscopes, to ensure compatibility and safety of system.
Use a variety of tools or equipment, such as power construction equipment, measuring devices, power tools and testing equipment, such as oscilloscopes, ammeters, or test lamps.
|Automotive Technician||Trades||College diploma or apprenticeship||2 to 4||Description
Examine vehicles, compile estimates of repair costs and secure customers' approval to perform repairs.
Repair, overhaul or adjust automobile brake systems.
Troubleshoot fuel, ignition and emissions control systems using electronic testing equipment.
Repair or replace defective ball joint suspensions, brake shoes or wheel bearings.
Inspect and test new vehicles for damage and record findings so that necessary repairs can be made.
Test electronic computer components in automobiles to ensure proper operation.
Tune automobile engines to ensure proper and efficient functioning.
|Plumber||Trades||College diploma or apprenticeship||2 to 4||Description
Measure, cut, thread or bend pipe to required angle using hand or power tools or machines such as pipe cutters, pipe-threading machines or pipe-bending machines.
Study building plans and inspect structures to assess material and equipment needs, to establish the sequence of pipe installations, and to plan installation around obstructions such as electrical wiring.
Locate and mark the position of pipe installations, connections, passage holes or fixtures in structures, using measuring instruments such as rulers or levels.
|Mechanic Door Repairs||Trades||College diploma or apprenticeship||2 to 4||Description
Adjust doors to open or close with the correct amount of effort or make simple adjustments to electric openers.
Wind large springs with upward motion of arm.
Inspect job sites, assessing headroom, side room or other conditions to determine appropriateness of door for a given location.
Collect payment upon job completion.
Complete required paperwork, such as work orders, according to services performed or required.
Fasten angle iron back-hangers to ceilings and tracks using fasteners or welding equipment.
Repair or replace worn or broken door parts using hand tools.
|Welder/Cutters||Trades||College diploma or apprenticeship||2 to 4||Description
Weld components in flat, vertical or overhead positions.
Operate safety equipment and use safe work habits.
Lay out, position, align and secure parts and assemblies prior to assembly, using straightedges, combination squares, calipers and rulers.
Examine workpieces for defects and measure workpieces with straightedges or templates to ensure conformance with specifications.
Recognize, set up and operate hand and power tools common to the welding trade, such as shielded metal arc and gas metal arc welding equipment.
Weld separately or in combination, using aluminum, stainless steel, cast iron and other alloys.
Clamp, hold, tack-weld, heat-bend, grind or bolt component parts to obtain required configurations and positions for welding.
|Construction and Building Inspector||Trades||Completion of college, cegep, vocational or technical training||4||Trade certification in related field; Certification by a provincial or territorial association||Description
Issue violation notices and stop-work orders, conferring with owners, violators and authorities to explain regulations and recommend rectifications.
Inspect bridges, dams, highways, buildings, wiring, plumbing, electrical circuits, sewers, heating systems or foundations during and after construction for structural quality, general safety or conformance to specifications and codes.
Approve and sign plans that meet required specifications.
Review and interpret plans, blueprints, site layouts, specifications or construction methods to ensure compliance to legal requirements and safety regulations.
|Courier||Transportation||College or no school||Description
Walk, ride bicycles, drive vehicles or use public conveyances in order to reach destinations to deliver messages or materials.
Load vehicles with listed goods, ensuring goods are loaded correctly and taking precautions with hazardous goods.
Unload and sort items collected along delivery routes.
Receive messages or materials to be delivered, and information on recipients, such as names, addresses, telephone numbers and delivery instructions, communicated via telephone, two-way radio or in person.
Plan and follow the most efficient routes for delivering goods.
Deliver messages and items, such as newspapers, documents and packages, between establishment departments and to other establishments and private homes.
|Truck Driver||Transportation||High school or college diploma||2||Driver's Licence (Class 1 or A); Air Brake (Z) Endorsement||Description
Check vehicles to ensure that mechanical, safety and emergency equipment is in good working order.
Maneuver trucks into loading or unloading positions, following signals from loading crew and checking that vehicle and loading equipment are properly positioned.
Collect delivery instructions from appropriate sources, verifying instructions and routes.
Maintain logs of working hours or of vehicle service or repair status, following applicable provincial and federal regulations.
Report vehicle defects, accidents, traffic violations or damage to the vehicles.
Secure cargo for transport, using ropes, blocks, chain, binders or covers.
Drive trucks to weigh stations before and after loading and along routes to document weights and to comply with regulations.
|Flight Attendant||Transportation||College or technical training||4||Description
Verify that first aid kits and other emergency equipment, including fire extinguishers and oxygen bottles, are in working order.
Direct and assist passengers in emergency procedures, such as evacuating a plane following an emergency landing.
Administer first aid to passengers in distress.
Announce and demonstrate safety and emergency procedures, such as the use of oxygen masks, seat belts and life jackets.
Walk aisles of planes to verify that passengers have complied with federal regulations prior to takeoffs and landings.
Prepare passengers and aircraft for landing, following procedures.
Attend preflight briefings concerning weather, altitudes, routes, emergency procedures, crew coordination, lengths of flights, food and beverage services offered and numbers of passengers.
|Commercial Pilot||Transportation||College or technical training||4||Commercial pilot license||Description
Check aircraft prior to flights to ensure that the engines, controls, instruments and other systems are functioning properly.
Contact control towers for takeoff clearances, arrival instructions and other information, using radio equipment.
Start engines, operate controls and pilot airplanes to transport passengers, mail or freight according to flight plans, regulations and procedures.
Monitor engine operation, fuel consumption and functioning of aircraft systems during flights.
Consider airport altitudes, outside temperatures, plane weights and wind speeds and directions to calculate the speed needed to become airborne.
Order changes in fuel supplies, loads, routes or schedules to ensure safety of flights.
Obtain and review data such as load weights, fuel supplies, weather conditions and flight schedules to determine flight plans and identify needed changes.
|Taxi Driver||Transportation||High school diploma or equivalent||1||Driver's license||Description
Follow relevant safety regulations and state laws governing vehicle operation and ensure that passengers follow safety regulations.
Test vehicle equipment such as lights, brakes, horns or windshield wipers to ensure proper operation.
Arrange to pick up particular customers or groups on a regular schedule.
Provide passengers with assistance entering and exiting vehicles, and help them with any luggage.
Notify dispatchers or company mechanics of vehicle problems.
Complete accident reports when necessary.
Communicate with dispatchers by radio, telephone or computer to exchange information and receive requests for passenger service.
|Editor||Writing and Language||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Prepare, rewrite and edit copy to improve readability, or supervise others who do this work.
Verify facts, dates and statistics using standard reference sources.
Read or proof copy to detect and correct errors in spelling, punctuation and syntax.
Develop story or content ideas, considering reader or audience appeal.
Review and approve proofs submitted by composing room prior to publication production.
Supervise and coordinate work of reporters and other editors.
|Translator||Writing and Language||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Follow ethical codes that protect the confidentiality of information.
Translate messages simultaneously or consecutively into specified languages, orally or by using hand signs, maintaining message content, context and style as much as possible.
Listen to speakers' statements to determine meanings and to prepare translations using electronic listening systems as necessary.
Compile terminology and information to be used in translations, including technical terms such as those for legal or medical material.
|Copy Writer||Writing and Language||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Write to customers in their terms and on their level so that the advertiser's sales message is more readily received.
Discuss with the client the product, advertising themes and methods, and any changes that should be made in advertising copy.
Write advertising copy for use by publication, broadcast or internet media to promote the sale of goods and services.
Present drafts and ideas to clients.
Vary language and tone of messages based on product and medium.
Consult with sales, media and marketing representatives to obtain information on product or service and discuss style and length of advertising copy.
Edit or rewrite existing copy as necessary, and submit copy for approval by supervisor.
Develop advertising campaigns for a wide range of clients, working with an advertising agency's creative director and art director to determine the best way to present advertising information.
|Chef||Culinary||College or technical training||2 to 4||Description
Check the quality of raw or cooked food products to ensure that standards are met.
Monitor sanitation practices to ensure that employees follow standards and regulations.
Check the quantity and quality of received products.
Order or requisition food or other supplies needed to ensure efficient operation.
Supervise or coordinate activities of cooks or workers engaged in food preparation.
Inspect supplies, equipment or work areas to ensure conformance to established standards.
Determine how food should be presented and create decorative food displays.
Instruct cooks or other workers in the preparation, cooking, garnishing or presentation of food.
Estimate amounts and costs of required supplies, such as food and ingredients.
|Food Scientist and Technologist||Culinary||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Check raw ingredients for maturity or stability for processing and finished products for safety, quality and nutritional value.
Confer with process engineers, plant operators, flavor experts and packaging and marketing specialists to resolve problems in product development.
Develop new or improved ways of preserving, processing, packaging, storing and delivering foods, using knowledge of chemistry, microbiology and other sciences.
Develop new food items for production, based on consumer feedback.
Develop food standards and production specifications, safety and sanitary regulations, and waste management and water supply specifications.
Inspect food processing areas to ensure compliance with government regulations and standards for sanitation, safety, quality and waste management.
|Baker||Culinary||High school or college diploma||2||Description
Observe colour of products being baked and adjust oven temperatures, humidity or conveyor speeds accordingly.
Set oven temperatures and place items into hot ovens for baking.
Combine measured ingredients in bowls of mixing, blending or cooking machinery.
Measure or weigh flour or other ingredients to prepare batters, doughs, fillings or icings using scales or graduated containers.
Roll, knead, cut or shape dough to form sweet rolls, pie crusts, tarts, cookies or other products.
Place dough in pans, molds or sheets and bake in production ovens or on grills.
Check the quality of raw materials to ensure that standards and specifications are met.
Adapt the quantity of ingredients to match the amount of items to be baked.
|Waiter/Waitress||Culinary||High school or college diploma||2||Description
Check with customers to ensure that they are enjoying their meals and take action to correct any problems.
Collect payments from customers.
Write patrons' food orders on order slips, memorize orders or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff.
Prepare checks that itemize and total meal costs and sales taxes.
Take orders from patrons for food or beverages.
Check patrons' identification to ensure that they meet minimum age requirements for consumption of alcoholic beverages.
|Hair Stylist||Other Applied||Technical training||2||Description
Keep work stations clean and sanitize tools such as scissors and combs.
Cut, trim and shape hair or hairpieces, based on customers' instructions, hair type and facial features, using clippers, scissors, trimmers and razors.
Analyze patrons' hair and other physical features to determine and recommend beauty treatment or suggest hair styles.
Schedule client appointments.
Bleach, dye or tint hair, using applicator or brush.
Update and maintain customer information records, such as beauty services provided.
Shampoo, rinse, condition and dry hair and scalp or hairpieces with water, liquid soap or other solutions.
Operate cash registers to receive payments from patrons.
Demonstrate and sell hair care products and cosmetics.
Develop new styles and techniques.
|Fitness Trainer||Other Applied||University degree or college diploma||2 to 4||Description
Observe participants and inform them of corrective measures necessary for skill improvement.
Instruct participants in maintaining exertion levels to maximize benefits from exercise routines.
Offer alternatives during classes to accommodate different levels of fitness.
Plan routines, choose appropriate music and choose different movements for each set of muscles, depending on participants' capabilities and limitations.
Teach proper breathing techniques used during physical exertion.
Evaluate individuals' abilities, needs and physical conditions, and develop suitable training programs to meet any special requirements.
|Travel Agent||Other Applied||High school or college diploma||2 to 3||Description
Collect payment for transportation and accommodations from customer.
Converse with customer to determine destination, mode of transportation, travel dates, financial considerations and accommodations required.
Compute cost of travel and accommodations, using calculator, computer, carrier tariff books and hotel rate books, or quote package tour costs.
Book transportation and hotel reservations using computer terminal or telephone.
|Accountant||Business||University degree||4||Certified General Accountant (CGA)Certified Management Accountant (CMA)Certified Accountant (CA)||Description
Prepare and analyze accounting records, financial statements, or other financial reports to assess accuracy, and conformance to reporting and procedural standards.
Report to management regarding the finances of the establishment.
Establish tables of accounts and assign entries to proper accounts.
Develop, implement, modify and document recordkeeping and accounting systems.
Compute taxes owed and prepare tax returns, ensuring compliance with payment, reporting or other tax requirements.Maintain or examine the records of government agencies.
Advise clients in areas such as compensation, employee health care benefits, the design of accounting or data processing systems, or long-range tax or estate plans.
Develop, maintain, and analyze budgets, preparing periodic reports that compare budgeted costs to actual costs.
|Human Resources Manager||Business||University degree or college diploma||4||Certified Human Resource Professional (CHRP)||Description
Serve as a link between management and employees by handling questions, interpreting and administering contracts. Analyze and modify compensation and benefits policies to establish competitive programs.
Advise managers on organizational policy matters such as equal employment opportunity and sexual harassment.
Perform difficult staffing duties, including dealing with refereeing disputes and firing employees.
Plan and conduct new employee orientation to foster positive attitudes toward organizational objectives.
Identify staff vacancies and recruit, interview and select applicants.
Plan and coordinate work activities of subordinates and staff relating to employment, compensation and labor relations.
Plan, control or coordinate the personnel, training, or labor relations activities of an organization.
|Operations Manager||Business||University degree or college diploma||2 to 6||Description
Oversee activities directly related to making products or providing services.
Direct and coordinate activities of businesses or departments concerned with the production, pricing, sales or distribution of products.
Review financial statements, sales and activity reports and other performance data to measure productivity.
Manage staff, prepare work schedules and assign specific duties.
Direct and coordinate an organization's financial and budget activities to fund operations, maximize investments and increase efficiency.
Establish and implement departmental policies, goals, objectives and procedures.
Determine staffing requirements, and interview, hire and train new employees.
Determine goods and services to be sold, and set prices and credit terms, based on forecasts of customer demand.
|Advertising Account Manager||Business||University degree||4||Description
Inspect layouts and advertising copy, and edit scripts, audio and video tapes.
Plan and prepare advertising and promotional materials to increase sales of products or services.
Gather and organize information to plan advertising campaigns.
Confer with clients to provide marketing or technical advice.
Direct, motivate and monitor the mobilization of a campaign team to advance campaign goals.
Confer with department heads or staff to discuss topics such as contracts and selection of advertising media.
Prepare budgets and submit estimates for program costs as part of campaign plan development.
Prepare and negotiate advertising and sales contracts.
Plan and execute advertising policies and strategies for organizations.
Assist with annual budget development.
|Real Estate Sales Agent||Business||University degree or college diploma||2 to 4||Licensed estate agent||Description
Present purchase offers to sellers for consideration.
Act as an intermediary in negotiations between buyers and sellers.
Compare a property with similar properties that have recently sold to determine its competitive market price.
Advise clients on market conditions, prices, mortgages, legal requirements and related matters.
Promote sales of properties through advertisements, open houses and participation in multiple listing services.
Accompany buyers during visits to and inspections of property.
Prepare documents such as representation contracts, purchase agreements, closing statements, deeds and leases.
Confer with escrow companies, lenders, home inspectors and pest control operators to ensure that terms and conditions of purchase agreements are met.
|Marketing Manager||Business||University degree||4||Description
Formulate, direct and coordinate marketing activities and policies to promote products and services, working with advertising and promotion managers.
Identify, develop or evaluate marketing strategy, based on knowledge of establishment objectives, market characteristics, and cost and markup factors.
Direct the hiring, training or performance evaluations of marketing or sales staff and oversee their daily activities.
Evaluate the financial aspects of product development, such as budgets, expenditures, or return-on-investment and profit-loss projections.
Develop pricing strategies, balancing firm objectives and customer satisfaction.
Compile lists describing product or service offerings.
Initiate market research studies or analyze their findings.
|Sales Manager||Business||University degree or college diploma||2 to 4||Description
Resolve customer complaints regarding sales and service.
Oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs.
Plan and direct staffing, training and performance evaluations to develop and control sales and service programs.
Determine price schedules and discount rates.
Review operational records and reports to project sales and determine profitability.
Monitor customer preferences to determine focus of sales efforts.
Prepare budgets and approve budget expenditures.
|Public Relations and Fundaraising Manager||Business||Bachelor's or master's degree||4 to 6||Description
Establish and maintain effective working relationships with clients, government officials and media representatives.
Write interesting and effective press releases, and prepare information for media kits
Develop and maintain company Internet or intranet web pages.
Identify main client groups and audiences, and develop and implement a communications plan.
Assign, supervise and review the activities of public relations staff.
Develop and maintain the company's corporate image and identity.
Respond to requests for information about employers' activities or status.
Manage communications budgets.
|Purchasing Manager||Business||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Represent companies in negotiating contracts and formulating policies with suppliers.
Direct and coordinate activities of personnel engaged in buying, selling and distributing materials, equipment, machinery and supplies.
Interview and hire staff, and oversee staff training.
Locate vendors of materials, equipment or supplies, and interview them to determine product availability and terms of sales.
Prepare and process requisitions and purchase orders for supplies and equipment.
Develop and implement purchasing and contract management instructions, policies and procedures.
Maintain records of goods ordered and received.
Participate in the development of specifications for equipment, products or substitute materials.
Analyze market and delivery systems to assess present and future material availability.
Resolve vendor or contractor grievances and claims against suppliers.
|Financial Manager||Business||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Establish and maintain relationships with individual or business customers or provide assistance with problems these customers may encounter.
Examine, evaluate or process loan applications.
Plan, direct or coordinate the activities of workers in branches, offices or departments of establishments.
Oversee the flow of cash or financial instruments.
Recruit staff members and oversee training programs.
Network within communities to find and attract new business.
Prepare financial or regulatory reports required by laws, regulations or boards of directors.
Establish procedures for custody or control of assets, records, loan collateral or securities to ensure safekeeping.
|Supply Chain Manager||Business||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Confer with supply chain planners to forecast demand or create supply plans that ensure availability of materials or products.
Monitor forecasts and quotas to identify changes or to determine their effect on supply chain activities.
Define performance metrics for measurement, comparison or evaluation of supply chain factors.
Develop procedures for coordination of supply chain management with other functional areas.
Negotiate prices and terms with suppliers, vendors or freight forwarders.
Meet with suppliers to discuss performance metrics, to provide performance feedback, or to discuss production forecasts or changes.
Implement new or improved supply chain processes.
|Actor||Creative Arts||No formal education required. Work experience considered a strong asset.||n/a||n/a||Description
Study and rehearse roles from scripts in order to interpret, learn and memorize lines, stunts and cues as directed.
Work closely with directors, other actors and playwrights to find the interpretation most suited to the role.
Learn about characters in scripts and their relationships to each other in order to develop role interpretations.
Collaborate with other actors as part of an ensemble.
Perform humorous and serious interpretations of emotions, actions and situations using body movements, facial expressions and gestures.
Attend auditions and casting calls in order to audition for roles.
Portray and interpret roles using speech, gestures and body movements in order to entertain and inform.
Work with other crewmembers responsible for lighting, costumes, makeup and props.
Sing and/or dance during dramatic or comedic performances.
Read from scripts or books to narrate action or to inform or entertain audiences.
|Architect||Creative Arts||Bachelor's or master's degree from an accredited school of architecture||4 to 6||n/a||Description
Consult with clients to determine functional or spatial requirements of structures.
Prepare scale drawings.
Plan layout of project.
Prepare information regarding design, structure specifications, materials, colour, equipment, estimated costs or construction time.
Integrate engineering elements into unified architectural designs.
Prepare contract documents for building contractors.
Direct activities of workers engaged in preparing drawings and specification documents.
Conduct periodic on-site observation of work during construction to monitor compliance with plans.
Seek new work opportunities through marketing, writing proposals or giving presentations.
Administer construction contracts.
|Dancer||Creative Arts||Graduate from a university, college or private dance school||2 to 8||n/a||Description
Train, exercise and attend dance classes to maintain high levels of technical proficiency, physical ability and physical fitness.
Study and practise dance moves required in roles.
Harmonize body movements to rhythm of musical accompaniment.
Perform classical, modern or acrobatic dances in productions, expressing stories, rhythm and sound with your body.
Collaborate with choreographers in order to refine or modify dance steps.
Coordinate dancing with that of partners or dance ensembles.
Attend costume fittings, photography sessions and makeup calls associated with dance performances.
Audition for dance roles or for membership in dance companies.
|Film Director||Creative Arts||University degree or college diploma in a job-related program||4||Portfolio demonstrating a strong body of experience.||Description
Supervise and coordinate the work of camera, lighting, design and sound crewmembers.
Plan details such as framing, composition, camera movement, sound and actor movement for each shot or scene.
Direct live broadcasts, films and recordings, or non-broadcast programming for public entertainment or education.
Confer with technical directors, managers, crew members and writers to discuss details of production.
Compile cue words and phrases, and cue announcers, cast members and technicians during performances.
Establish pace of programs and sequences of scenes according to time requirements and cast and set accessibility.
Identify and approve equipment and elements required for productions, such as scenery, lights, props, costumes, choreography and music.
|Graphic Designer||Creative Arts||College diploma||3 to 4||Description
Prepare sketches, photographs or illustrations of subjects to be rendered.
Produce final designs or illustrations.
Create general graphic design, commercial art, visual art, exhibits, product packaging, corporate identity, advertising, publications, greeting cards, annual reports, multimedia, forms.
|Musician||Creative Arts||Training at the college or university level or private lessons is a major asset. Professional classical musicians, singers and music school teachers usually require a university degree in music.||4 to 6||Description
Practise musical instrument performances, individually or in rehearsal with other musicians, to master individual pieces of music and to maintain and improve skills.
Perform before live audiences.
Specialize in playing a specific family of instruments and/or a particular type of music.
Play musical instruments as soloists, or as members or guest artists of musical groups such as orchestras, ensembles or bands.
Play from memory or by following scores.
Sight-read musical parts during rehearsals.
Audition for orchestras, bands or other musical groups.
Provide the musical background for live shows such as ballets, operas, musical theatre and cabarets.
Transpose music to alternate keys, or to fit individual styles or purposes.
Promote their own or their group's music by participating in media interviews and other activities.
|Photographer||Creative Arts||Specialized training in photography||2 to 4||Description
Take pictures of individuals, families and small groups, either in studio or on location.
Adjust apertures, shutter speeds and camera focus based on a combination of factors such as lighting, field depth, subject motion, film type and film speed.
Use traditional or digital cameras, along with a variety of equipment such as tripods, filters and flash attachments.
Create artificial light, using flashes and reflectors.
Determine desired images and picture composition, selecting and adjusting subjects, equipment, and lighting to achieve desired effects.
Scan photographs into computers for editing, storage and electronic transmission.
Test equipment prior to use to ensure that it is in good working order.
|Early Childhood Educator||Education||College, cegep, vocational or technical training||2 to 3||Early Childhood Education Diploma or Degree; First Aid Certificate||Description
Plan and develop child care and nursery school programs.
Provide supervision and guidance of daily activities, field trips and special activities.
Provide opportunity for creative expression through the mediums of art, dramatic play and music.
Assess the developmental level of children.
Prepare progress reports and discuss with parents and other staff members.
Knowledge of Day Nurseries Act.
Knowledge of licensing regulations.
Establish guidelines for behaviour.
Order supplies and equipment.
Assist in maintaining records of children.
Maintain day care supplies and equipment.
Assist in housekeeping duties.
Light cleaning duties.
|Teacher (Elementary, Secondary)||Education||
Bachelor of education (B.Ed.) or equivalent;
To be authorized to teach English or French as a second language, a bachelor's degree in teaching English or French as a second language is required.
To teach at the elementary level and obtain a teaching licence, a bachelor's degree in pre-school and elementary school education is required.
|4||Teaching certificate or license from provincial government (required by secondary schools)||Description
Prepare courses for presentation to students according to approved curriculum.
Teach students using lessons, discussions, audio-visual presentations and field trips.
Evaluate the progress of students and discuss progress results with students, parents and school officials.
Develop course materials and curriculum content.
Identify childrens' individual learning needs.
|Civil Engineer||Engineering Science||University degree||4||May require certification by a provincial or territorial association||Description
Manage and direct staff members and the construction, operations or maintenance activities at project site.
Provide technical advice regarding design, construction or program modifications and structural repairs to industrial and managerial personnel.
Inspect project sites to monitor progress and ensure conformance to design specifications and safety or sanitation standards.
Estimate quantities and cost of materials, equipment or labour to determine project feasibility.
Test soils or materials to determine the adequacy and strength of foundations, concrete, asphalt or steel.
Compute load and grade requirements, water flow rates or material stress factors to determine design specifications.
Plan and design transportation or hydraulic systems and structures, following construction and government standards, using design software and drawing tools.
Analyze survey reports, maps, drawings, blueprints, aerial photography and other topographical or geologic data to plan projects.
Prepare or present public reports on topics such as bid proposals, deeds, environmental impact statements or property and right-of-way descriptions.
Direct or participate in surveying to lay out installations or establish reference points, grades or elevations to guide construction.
|Mining Engineer||Enginneering Science||University degree||4||May require certification by a provincial or territorial association||Description
Select locations and plan underground or surface mining operations, specifying processes, labour usage and equipment that will result in safe, economical and environmentally sound extraction of minerals and ores.
Design, implement and monitor the development of mines, facilities, systems or equipment.
Inspect mining areas for unsafe structures, equipment and working conditions.
Examine maps, deposits, drilling locations or mines to determine the location, size, accessibility, contents, value and potential profitability of mineral, oil and gas deposits.
Select or develop mineral location, extraction and production methods, based on factors such as safety, cost and deposit characteristics.
Prepare technical reports for use by mining, engineering and management personnel.
Monitor mine production rates to assess operational effectiveness.
|Electrical Engineer||Enginneering Science||University degree||2 to 4||Description
Set up and operate test equipment to evaluate performance of developmental parts, assemblies or systems.
Assemble electrical and electronic systems and prototypes according to engineering data and knowledge of electrical principles.
Provide technical assistance and resolution when electrical or engineering problems are encountered before, during and after construction.
Build, calibrate, maintain, troubleshoot or repair electrical instruments or testing equipment.
Review existing electrical engineering criteria to identify necessary revisions, deletions or amendments to outdated material.
Collaborate with electrical engineers or other personnel to identify, define or solve developmental problems.
Conduct inspections for quality control and assurance programs, reporting findings and recommendations.
|Database Administrator||IT||Bachelor's degree||4||Description
Test programs or databases, correct errors and make necessary modifications.
Modify existing databases and database management systems or direct programmers and analysts to make changes.
Plan, coordinate and implement security measures to safeguard information in computer files against accidental or unauthorized damage.
Work as part of a project team to coordinate database development and determine project scope and limitations.
Write and code logical and physical database descriptions and specify identifiers of database to management system.
Train users and answer questions.
|Software Developer||IT||University degree or college diploma||3 to 6||Description
Modify existing software to correct errors and to adapt it to new hardware.
Advise customers about or perform maintenance of software system.
Analyze information to determine, recommend and plan installation of a new system or modification of an existing system.
Consult with engineering staff to evaluate interface between hardware and software, develop specifications and performance requirements or resolve customer problems.
Direct software programming and development of documentation.
Store, retrieve and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements.
|Web Administrator||IT||University degree or college diploma||2 to 4||Description
Back up or modify applications and related data to provide for disaster recovery.
Determine sources of web page or server problems, and take action to correct such problems.
Review or update web page content or links in a timely manner.
Implement web site security measures, such as firewalls or message encryption.
Administer internet/intranet infrastructure.
Collaborate with development teams to discuss, analyze or resolve usability issues.
Test backup or recovery plans regularly and resolve any problems.